1. What is the initial margin?
2. What is the mark to market margin?
3. What are the Margin Factors?
4. How is the exposure verification done at the End of the Day?
5. How is margining done for repo trades?
6. What is CCIL’s Value at Risk methodology?
7. Can I get an idea about my initial margin requirement?
8. What is “IntegratedRisk Information System”? How does it help me in monitoring the marginsrequirements?
9. Can I get an idea about Mark to Market margin requirement?
10. What is Incremental MTM Margin?
11. What is Intraday MTM Margin and how it is imposed?
12. When does my margins get released ?
13. Whether the deals beyond the exposure limit are accepted?
14. What is Member Common Collateral (MCC)?
15. What are eligible securities (for contribution into MCC)?
16. Can a security deposited by a member into its MCC be withdrawn?
17. What is CCIL’s Valuation Methodology for valuing Government Securities?
18. What is Default Fund and how the contribution of the member is computed?
What is the initial margin?
Initial Margin constitutes the margin obligation required to be fulfilled by a member on its outstanding trades in securities so as to provide cover to the Clearing Corporation from the likely risk that may arise due to the future adverse movement of prices of such securities. Initial margins for relatively weaker members are stepped up by 25% to 50% based on the Counterparty Risk Assessment (CPRA) Grade of the members. Initial Margin for particular member may also be stepped up in case of adverse market report or regulatory action etc.
What is the mark to market margin?
Mark to Market Margin (MTM) constitutes the margin obligation required to be fulfilled by a member to cover the notional loss (i.e. the difference between the current market price and the contracted price of the security) in respect of outstanding trades.
How is the exposure verification done at the End of the Day?
The exposure verification for a member is done on the following
a. Outstanding trades at the time of exposure check are segregated and
the trade considerations are totaled security-wise and settlement date-wise by
allowing netting between buy trades and sell trades. During the process of
netting, trading loss incurred by a member, if any, is arrived at using FIFO
principle and is captured as Initial Margin. Profits on such netting are
b. Each security-wise settlement date-wise net consideration is
multiplied by the margin factor applicable for the respective security to
arrive at the margin requirement for the trades in the security which are due
for settlement on such settlement day.
c. The security-wise and settlement date-wise margins are then summed
up to arrive at the total initial margin requirement of a member.
d. Initial Margin is computed based on deal consideration till the
trade is subjected to MTM margin. Thereafter, the computation of initial Margin
is based on the value of the trade at MTM price.
e. Mark to Market margin (MTM margin) is applicable for the
trades outstanding as at the end of the day and is applied at the end of the
day (i.e. at the time of End of the Day Risk Valuation). No MTM margin is
payable on first leg of Repo trades. Second leg of repo trades are however subjected
to MTM margin immediately after the completion of netting of corresponding
first leg for settlement. In case, any trade received from a member during the
day is at a price which is considered as outlier, CCIL may impose Additional
Initial Margin for the trade at the time of acceptance of such trade.
f. The total of Initial Margin, MTM Margin and Volatility Margin
requirement in respect of the outstanding trades of a member should be covered
by available balance in Member Common Collateral (MCC) pool. If the total
margin requirement is more than the balance available in MCC pool, then the
member has exceeded its exposure.
How is margining done for repo trades?
An offset in margin is provided between
two repo trades in opposite direction i.e. buy against sell or vice-versa, when
the trades are in the same security and have same settlement dates for both
legs of the trades. No offset is allowed between the first leg of a repo trade
and an outright trade whereas such offset is allowed between the second leg of
the trade and an outright trade in the same security and for the same
No MTM margin is charged on 1st leg of Repo trades unless the trade has
been identified as having done at an off market price. MTM margin on second leg
of repo trades is applied immediately after completion of the netting for
settlement of the corresponding first leg of repo trades. The MTM margin so
computed will be based on the last available MTM prices. At the end of the day,
such MTM margin is re-computed based on day-end MTM prices
What is CCIL’s Value at Risk methodology?
Value at Risk (VaR) is computed security-wise using historical simulation method. For computing VaR, Zero Coupon Yield Curve (NSS) data for the past 1000 days is used. CCIL may set the VaR for illiquid securities by adding appropriate illiquidity weights to such numbers.
Can I get an idea about my initial margin requirement? The requirements for
initial margin vary significantly depending on the margin factor and nature of
securities traded. The margin factor depends on the residual maturity of the
traded security and is usually higher for securities having higher residual maturity.
To assist the members to find out their margin requirement for their trades in
Government Securities and also to do 'what if' analysis regarding margin
requirement and required margin contribution to MCC pool, CCIL has made
available a web based "Online Margin Calculator" for Securities
Segment as a part of its "Integrated Risk Information System". The
system can be accessed on the URL https://iris.ccilindia.com.
What is "Integrated Risk Information System"? How does it help me in monitoring the margins requirements?
“Integrated Risk Information
System (IRIS)” is a web-based information system, which provides CCIL’s
members with all information pertaining to their trades, margins &
collateral, settlement status etc. This web- based utility helps its users to
access their trade and margin details on a real time basis where data is
refreshed in less than 5 sec. Trades executed on any of the trading systems or
reported to reporting platforms is processed & displayed in a systematic
manner in the application.
In addition, it assists members to:
a) Keep track of their outstanding trade positions.
b) Keep track of their intra-day deposits / withdrawals of
cash/securities in the MCC pool, if any
c) Keep track of notional MTM credits received from other segments.
The system can be accessed on the URL https://iris.ccilindia.com. To avail this facility members have to send a request to firstname.lastname@example.org
Can I get an idea about Mark to Market margin requirement?
Outright trades falling due for settlement beyond T+0 day and Repo trades would attract Mark to Market margin (MTM Margin). This margin is computed only for the members holding adverse positions (i.e. notional loss positions) and is computed for security-wise settlement date-wise group of trades. Amount of MTM Margin therefore depends on the actual change in market price of the concerned security(ies). MTM gains on trades in liquid/semi-liquid GOI securities and T-Bills is now allowed to set off against MTM losses on trades in any security provided that the settlement of such trades with MTM gains takes place on or after the settlement date of trades with MTM losses.
What is Incremental MTM Margin?
Incremental MTM Margin is the sum of MTM Margin applicable on the new trades received during the day and the increase in MTM Margin during the day in respect of the trades carried over from the previous day. However, MTM Margin representing trading loss arrived at during the time of netting of trades, Additional Initial Margin collected on trades done at off-market prices. Incremental MTM margin is debited immediately on assessment of the same at the end of the day and in case of a resultant shortfall in margin, members are required to fund their margin account within stipulated time on the next business day. Failure to do so attracts penalty.
What is Intraday MTM Margin and how it is imposed?
Sudden volatility in interest rates / bond prices during the day may substantially erode the Initial margins collected from the members. CCIL therefore, revalues all the outstanding trades of the members at 12.00 noon & 3.00 PM using the latest available MTM prices. Collaterals are also revalued using the latest intra-day MTM prices. Net MTM loss in the portfolio of a member will be sum of net MTM value depletion on outstanding trades and reduction in value of collaterals under charge, if any. If the net MTM Loss arrived at as above exceeds a percent (as notified from time to time) of the sum of the haircut value of collateral under charge and the initial margin and volatility Margin (if applicable) collected, such net MTM loss will be the Intra-day MTM margin payable by the member.
When does my margins get released ?
Whether the deals beyond the exposure limit are accepted?
At present, trades that
fall beyond concerned members’ risk exposure limits are accepted without
guarantee (vis-à-vis such members) for settlement by the Clearing Corporation.
Trades once accepted without guarantee would qualify for guaranteed settlement
only upon receipt of additional margin contributions to the concerned member’s MCC
pool, to cover the shortfall at the time of breach in exposure. The members can
make intra-day deposit of cash and securities into their Settlement Guarantee
Fund towards expected intra-day margin shortfall which are accounted for by
CCIL on receipt of such deposit. The securities are valued based on last
available Mark to Market (MTM) prices of CCIL and then are adjusted for
What is Member Common Collateral (MCC)?
Member Common Collateral
(MCC) constitutes of member-wise margin pool to which contributions inform of
Cash / Eligible Govt. Securities are made by the members to meet their margin
requirements for trades cleared in Securities Segment (Market Repo &
Outright), Forex USD-INR Settlement Segment (supplementary to FX Collateral in
USD), Forex Forward, CLS and Rupee IRS derivatives.
The members’ contribution
to the MCC pool is in the form of cash and eligible securities. The cash requirement
being not less than 10% of the total margin requirement in Securities Segment
& not less than 5% of total margin requirement in Forex Forward and Rupee
Further, the balance
available in MCC pool of a direct/clearing member shall also be used to cover
the deficit (if any) in default fund contribution by concerned member and the shortfall
(if any) in the margin account of its Constituent’s.
Further, If the
segment-wise net MTM value of trades accepted in Forex, Forex Forward &
Rupee IRS Segment, is positive (i.e. MTM gain), then such MTM value, subject to
haircut, is allowed as notional credit to available balance in members MCC pool.
This amount is termed as “Margin Credit”.
What are eligible securities (for contribution into MCC)?
Eligible Securities are Central Government Securities and Treasury Bills listed as such by CCIL through notification. CCIL accepts deposits in these securities into MCC pool from the members. These listed securities are usually liquid securities and the list is reviewed periodically. Inclusion / exclusion of any security to / from the list is notified to the members. On exclusion of a security from the list, a member having deposits in such security is expected to withdraw such security from MCC pool before the announced dated of exclusion; else, the value of the holding in said security in MCC pool is treated as nil.
Can a security deposited by a member into its MCC be withdrawn?
Any security deposited by a member can be withdrawn after giving notice as required as per CCIL Regulations for the Securities Segment, as long as the value of the remaining balance in its MCC is adequate to take care of total margin requirement across segments which are accessing the common margin pool.
What is CCIL’s Valuation Methodology for valuing Government Securities?
methodology gives primacy to the traded prices. The price of last trade (of
face value Rs.5 crores and above) of the day reported / matched on NDS-OM will
be taken as MTM price. If in the opinion of CCIL, the last trade doesn’t
reflect the fair market price of the security, CCIL may change the price to
weighted average price for each such security. For arriving at weighted average
price, last five outright trades of the last day in the security (or of all
trades, if number of trades is less than five) are only taken into
consideration. Trades of face value of below Rs. 5 cores, market outliers &
constituent trades are ignored for this purpose.
In case there is no outright
non-constituent trade of face value Rs.5 Crores and above in a security or if,
in the opinion of CCIL, none of the trades in the security reflect the
prevailing market price of the security, the security will be treated as not
traded on the day. On such days, Mark to Market price for such security will be
based on the Internal Valuation Model of Clearing Corporation.
CCIL’s Model Prices for
Central Government Securities and T-Bills are worked out at the end of each
trading day using Nelson-Siegel-Svensson Zero Coupon Yield Curve generated from
the data on trades in Central Government Securities and T-Bills done by market
participants during the day. Adjustment is made for liquidity / illiquidity
premium / discount.
What is Default Fund and how the contribution of the member is computed?
Default Fund in respect of its
Securities Segment has been set up with a view to meeting losses arising out of
any default by the members of this segment in discharging their obligations.
Default Fund quantum is based on the highest stress loss observed
in the preceding six months and is reviewed at end of every month or at such frequency as decided by CCIL
from time to time. A
member’s contribution to the default fund is determined based on 1) Average
of (a) outstanding gross trade volume of the member and (b) Initial margin
contributions and 2) Highest of its Stress Loss, during preceding six months
period, with 50:25:25 as weights for these components, respectively. The
minimum contribution for a member is Rs. 10 Lacs.