Risk Management Process
During the settlement
processes, CCIL assumes certain risks which may arise due to a default by a
member to honour its obligations. Settlement being on Delivery Versus Payment
basis, the risk from a default is the market risk (change in price of the
concerned security). CCIL processes are designed to cover the market risk
through its margining process.
CCIL collects Initial
Margin and Mark to Market Margin (both Intraday and EOD) from members in
respect of their outstanding trades. Initial Margin is collected to cover
the likely risk from future adverse movement of prices of the
concerned securities. Mark to Market Margin is collected to cover the
notional loss (i.e. the difference between the current market price and the
contract price of the security covered by the trade) already incurred by a
member. Both the margins are computed trade-wise and then aggregated member-wise.
No margin offsets are permitted between constituents or between a constituent
and its Clearing Member.
In case of sudden
volatility, Intraday Mark to Market Margin is collected if the difference
between the Mark to Market Margin at previous EOD and
intra-day Mark to Market Margin is greater than a specified threshold
level of the initial margin as at previous EOD. In addition, CCIL
may also collect Volatility Margin in case of unusual volatility in the market.
Members are required to maintain
sufficient margin balances in its Member Common Collateral (MCC) pool, in a
manner that the same is enough to cover the all types of margin requirements on
the trades done by such members in various segments. In case of any shortfall,
CCIL makes margin call and the concerned member is required to meet the
shortfall before the stipulated time. Members' contribution towards the MCC pool
is in the form of eligible Govt. of India Securities/T-Bills and Cash.
Another important risk emanating from the process
is Liquidity Risk. To ensure uninterrupted settlement, CCIL is required to
arrange for liquidity both in terms of funds and securities. CCIL has arranged
for Lines of Credit from Banks to enable it to meet any reasonable shortfall of
funds arising out of a default by a member either in its Securities Segment or
Forex Segment. In regard to the member’s contributions to MCC, it is mainly in
the form of securities as per the list of specified securities acceptable as contribution
towards MCC as notified from time to time. CCIL ensures that the most liquid
securities in which a significant portion of the trades are settled are likely
to be eligible to be posted towards margin in the MCC pool.